TotalEnergies SE operates exploration & production fields, petroleum refineries, petrochemical plants, and power plants. Operations are organized into four divisions: Exploration & Production; Gas, Renewables, & Power; Refining & Chemicals; and Marketing & Services. Administrative offices are located in Aberdeen and Houston. Ordinary shares are listed on the Paris (FP) and NYSE (TOT) exchanges.
Total traces its earliest roots to the 1920 founding of Belgium-based Compagnie Financière Belge des Pétroles which changed its name to PetroFina in 1922. In 1924, publicly traded Compagnie Française des Pétroles (CFP) was created when the French government received a 25% share in the Turkish Petroleum Company (TPC), formerly owned by Deustche Bank, as reparations for World War I.
The French companies Régie Autonome des Pétroles (RAP) and Société Nationale des Pétroles d'Aquitaine (SNPA) were formed in 1939 and 1941, respectively. France created Bureau de Recherches de Pétroles (BRP) in 1945 to establish a national exploration program. CFP introduced the Total brand of gasoline in 1954. In 1965, RAP, SNPA, and BRP were merged to form Entreprise de Recherches et d'Activités Pétrolières (ERAP). ERAP's products were unified under the brand Essence et Lubrifiants de France (Elf) in 1967. In 1976, Elf-ERAP merged with Antar Pétroles de l'Atlantique and became Société Nationale Elf Aquitaine (SNEA), later Elf Aquitaine.
CFP acquired the US-based refiner Vickers Petroleum in 1980. CFP was renamed Total CFP in 1985 and then just Total in 1991. The French government reduced its stake in the firm from 30% in 1991 when the company listed on the NYSE exchange to less than 1% in 1996. France also sold its stake in Elf Aquitaine in 1996. Total acquired PetroFina to become TotalFina in 1999, and TotalFina acquired Elf Aquitaine in 2000 to become TotalFinaElf. In 2003, the combined company was renamed Total, but the fuel brands Elf and Fina are still in use. In May 2021, the company was renamed TotalEnergies.