Royal Dutch Shell PLC (RDS) operates oil and gas fields, pipeline infrastructure, petroleum refineries, and petrochemicals plants with assets in over 70 countries. Operations are organized into three business units: Upstream, Integrated Gas, and Downstream. A Projects & Technology organization manages the delivery of major projects and technical research. The company is publicly held with a U.K. registration and shares listed on the LON (RDSB), AMS (RDSA), and NYSE (RDSA, RDSB, and SHLX) exchanges.
Shell's history dates back to 1890 when Royal Dutch Petroleum which was formed to develop an oil field in Sumatra, then part of the Dutch East Indies colony. In 1893, brothers Marcus and Sam Samuel formed a British bulk oil tanker company called Tank Syndicate. This company was renamed Shell Transport & Trading in 1897, taking its name from the seashells imported from the Far East by their father. Royal Dutch and Shell formed a sales organization in the Far East in 1903 called Asiatic Petroleum. In 1907, Royal Dutch and Shell formed a partnership with 60% of earnings going to the Dutch company in The Hague and 40% to the British company in London.
The group was reorganized in the late 1950s with the creation of new operating companies below the two holding companies and a committee of managing directions to set direction. This structure remained in place until 2004 when an oil reserve reporting controversy caused Shell to become a new, single holding company and delist the shares of Shell Transport & Trading and Royal Dutch Petroleum in 2005. Wind power company EOLFI was acquired in 2019.